Mesothelial cells form a single layer of pavement in specialized cells lining the serous cavities of the body and internal organs, The main function of this layer, called the mesothelium, is to provide a slippery surface and non-adhesive and protective.
However, play a key role involving transport fluid and cells across the serosal cavities, antigen presentation, inflammation and cell adhesion in tissue repair, coagulation and fibrinolysis and the tumor. Injury to the mesothelium raises events that lead to migration of mesothelial cells from the edge of the lesion towards the center of the wound and the sloughing of cells in the serous fluid that bind and incorporate into regenerating mesothelium.
If health is in danger, fibrous adhesions form between organs and serous body wall which impede vital intrathoracic and abdominal. Neoplastic transformation of mesothelial cells results in malignant mesothelioma, an aggressive tumor, especially the pleura.
Reactive mesothelial cells
when there is infection or inflammation present in a body cavity the reactive mesothelial cells are found. This condition can be caused by the presence of bacterial, viral or fungal. It can also be the result of trauma or the presence of metastatic cancer. The reactive tend to come in clusters and patches, and are more faded in the cytoplasm of body fluids. Please note the image on the right, the cytoplasmic borders are clear in this group compared with normal. Separation of nuclei large and well-defined nucleoli help identify corrective mesothelial cells. However, if there is any doubt, the smear should be sent to hematology, pathology or review. Note: It is not uncommon for macrophages to be mixed in a ball.
Mesothelial cells in pleural fluid
Eighty five samples of Mesothelial cells in pleural fluid from 76 patients with biopsy-proven tuberculous pleurisy were examined cytologically. Many reactive were present in only 1.2% of samples analyzed. In contrast, 65.3% of pleural fluid aspirates from a control group of patients with congestive heart failure contained significantly mesothelial exfoliation. The suggestion that the presence of numerous, often very reactive mesothelial cells in pleural aspirate makes the diagnosis of tuberculosis is unlikely confirmed.
Mesothelial cells in ascitic fluid
The associated tumor antigen 90K is known to possess properties similar cytokine in modulating the cellular immune system, where accessory cells are the main target of this molecule. In 67 patients with ovarian cancer with significant amounts of ascites, were immune-stimulating proteins 90K detected in all samples of ascitic fluid studied. Levels correlated with ascites over 90K s-IL-2R content. To illustrate the source of 90K protein in the ascites fluid, his release in vitro was studied in primary cultured normal human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC).
Peritoneal mesothelium was found to produce five times more than 90K in the cells of ovarian cancer. 90K protein output was significantly increased by treatment with IFN-gamma in both mesothelial and cancer cells of the ovary. However, neither IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha treatment consistently reduced the secretion of 90K in either cell type, mesothelial cells in ascitic fluid.
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